Is there a cure for hepes?
Below you fill find a compilation of article quotes from around the internet discussing the topic of a cure for herpes simplex virus.
I have been seeing a girl for some age immediately and I recently found Acyclovir in her medicine cabinet. Instantly I know what Acyclovir is -- my boy in college had to catch it, poor guy. Anyway, so I asked her about it and she told me that it's for her lips.
Immediately I thought it was used for herpes, and I thought that herpes 1 or 2 can be spread. So let's affirm, if she performs oral sex on me (which she already has) that I could get herpes. Am I path off base here? Dear Lord, I hope so. When I found the bottle, I had a small heart attack, so please let me know either path so I can do something about it.
Freaked in Frisco
Your thinking was fair: Acyclovir is used to treat herpes. While it will not cure herpes infections, it does decrease the irritation associated with them and encourages healing.
Acyclovir, however, can be used as a treatment for other conditions. It is sometimes prescribed to those suffering from chicken pox, shingles or mononucleosis. It can also be used to counter leukoplakia, a viral infection that produces a white or gray patch on the surface of the body. Leukoplakia usually develops in the mouth, nevertheless can occur on the female genitalia.
While there's no cure for herpes, it doesn't pose a danger to most who contract it. It's a chronic condition; a nuisance to live with, however one you can live with nonetheless. Of direction, none of this is to suggest that it is a desirable condition! Have a sit-down with your girlfriend and find outside exactly what she's suffering from -- don't torture yourself any further by leaving it to your imagination.
you missed a spot
I am a 23-year-old male who was circumcised as a infant. However, I still have a piece of foreskin that is attached to the base of my penis. It does not hurt, except for the times when I have lenghty periods of sex or masturbation. I would assert about 5% of the foreskin is still attached and 95% is not. Is this normal? Could this potentially lead to any health problems? Do you think I should have doctor catch gaze at this?
If you could let me know, that would be great. Thanks for your assist.
Like all surgical procedures, circumcision isn't foolproof. It is attractive close, though; for every 1,000 circumcisions performed, it is estimated that only two result in complications. For that unlucky 0.2%, the ensuing problems can vary widely in terms of pain and lifestyle disruption.
On one end of the scale, a circumcision can go severely awry, resulting in infection, a bending of the penis, the development of cysts at the incision site, or still an inadvertent amputation of the glans, or head, of the penis. So, while it's unfortunate that you fell into that minute 0.2% percentage, you can consider yourself lucky that you escaped with only an incomplete circumcision.
You may still, however, be at risk of developing further complications. Incomplete circumcision can sometimes lead to phimosis, a narrowing of the foreskin opening. It's never also late to have that circumcision completed properly, so notebook an appointment with your urologist and have him see what he can do abgone it.
a red flag
Just today during one of my daily urinations my pee was a brownish color, and naturally this took me by surprise and I was a bit worried. Halfway through my duties chunks of snot like thick bloody chunks came out.
I'm afraid, and don't know what to do. I didn't know who else to inquire about this.
There's obviously a occupation here. For further specifics, however, you'll have to visit a healthcare professional.
Blood in the urine, or hematuria, can be caused by many conditions, most of which are happily not serious ones. A simple urinary tract infection, or still a spirited bout of exercise, can produce red blood cells in the urine. Unhappily, hematuria can also be indicative or more worrisome conditions, such as kidney disease.
The circumstance that you're also encountering solids in your urine stream will assist a doctor reach an accurate prognosis -- this combination of symptoms can be indicative of a number of specific conditions. Go see your doctor as soon as you can.
Background of Zinc for Herpes
In 1985, I wrote a review article Medical Hypotheses (volume 17, pages 157 - 165) reprinted below about the employ of Zn2+ ions to treat oral and genital herpes simplex infections. Guess what? Nobody paid any attention, much though many articles demonstrated efficacy. Times have changed. Today in "The Doctors Textbook of Residence Remedies" available at most notebook stores, there is a reasonably correct analysis of the employ of Zn2+ ions to treat herpes simplex cold sores. It is really very simple. "Zap It With Zinc Ions! Employ zinc acetate lozenges every hardly any hours to release herpes simplex virus killing Zn2+ ions."
Did you know that about 20 percent of all young human beings are infected with genital herpes? Did you know that oral herpes is estimated to be present in 50 to 80 percent of the American adult population? Did you know that over 50 million mankind in the U.S. are infected with genital herpes, and the majority of these mankind are totally unaware that they much have it? Did you know that more than 500,000 Americans are diagnosed with genital herpes each year, and the largest increase is occurring in young teens. Still infants have herpes simplex, primarily from being kissed on the mouth by their infected mothers. Still enjoying sex?
In my 1985 article reprinted below, I suggested frequent application (perhaps 9 times a day for 4 or 5 days), and about twice a day for diverse months, whether sores were present or not. Extended treatment destroys viruses hiding in the nerve ganglia as they surface. In genital herpes simplex infections, the method of applying Zn2+ ions is different. Zinc gluconate aqueous solutions (10 to 100 mMol) are kept in contact with the infected tissues for about 10 to 30 minutes and are repeated frequently (4 to 9 times a day) until the sores are gone. The secret to keeping these viruses from reinfecting is maintaining zinc ions on the tissue surface to insure that all herpes simplex viruses are destroyed as they surface from the nerve ganglia.
If you decide that you require to conduct oral (in the mouth) herpes experimental research, you can apply Eby's ColdCure zinc acetate lozenges. These lozenges are the only product ever proven to shorten the duration and severity of natural (presumed viral) common colds in two, non-company, independent clinical trial. They are legal drugs. However, they have not been clinically tested to treat oral herpes. Be careful to not overdose on zinc lozenges, (meaning no more than 9 zinc acetate lozenges day for 4 or 5 days) and not longer, with a partial zinc lozenge about twice a day for distinct months. Zinc acetate lozenges found in stores nearly always list citric acid, glycine or ascorbic acid in the fine print, and they will not be beneficial for sophisticated solution chemistry reasons. See this article to see what happens to zinc ions (the active ingredient) by chemical action of citric acid. Although the speciation of citric acid is for zinc gluconate, the results for zinc acetate are identical. The ions are completely missing when citric acid is added at the physiologic pH 7.4 of your skin.
If you decide that you require to conduct genital herpes (or skin) experimental research, you can obtain one-half pound of zinc gluconate from Eby Pharma LLC for $36.50 (price includes postage in continental United States). You can apply this zinc lozenge order leaf. You must indicate that you desire the "chemical zinc gluconate" and submit the value as "$36.50", otherwise you will receive zinc lozenges. Packages carry no indication as to what the zinc gluconate is for, either outside or inside. Your complete confidentiality is therefore assured. This zinc gluconate powder is a USP aliment grade zinc gluconate powder and it is sold only as a chemical, and not as a drug or nutrient, and it is definitely not for oral employ. Dry, it has no pharmacological activity, however if it drys on the skin it may produce severe tissue burns. Only when the user mixes it in aqua does it have pharmacological properties as a topical anti-herpes wash. Mix about one level teaspoon of the powder into a half pint of warm aqua, and PRESTO, you will have made a TOPICAL antiviral wash of aboutside 22 milliMolar concentration, which must be kept sealed and refrigerated upon mixing to prevent spoilage. Keep the powdered zinc gluconate sealed in an air tight container in a safe, clean, cool place.
Think of zinc as a herpes killing tool. You must figure out how to apply that tool for it to job.
How do you apply the zinc gluconate washes? I don't know (see the medical journal articles below for ideas), nevertheless if you are female, you might invent your own zinc gluconate-treated napkins or tampons. Are they safe? I don't know, nevertheless I suspect that zinc gluconate could react with any other chemicals in those sanitary items, so I would never add zinc gluconate washes to them if there are any drug or chemical additives in them. If you are male, your job may involve bandages. Again, avoid fancy bandages that have drugs or chemical additives.
Remember that there are two aspects of treatment. First, is "treatment" of active lesions, and second is "prevention" of re-occurrence. Only lenghty term (many months) of topical application of ionic zinc on a frequent daily basis has been shown to prevent re-occurrence as shown in the articles below. Peruse these articles below to see how others achieved this goal. Obviously, with a 20% incidence of herpes in the American public, your chances of getting genital herpes with each sexual encounter is twenty percent. Therefore, you will likely get herpes again and again and again and again... and I haven't still mentioned any of the other sexually transmitted diseases. The only "safe sex" is for those that are abstinent.
For the science minded, here is how that "22 milliMolar" calculation is derived. DATA: One level teaspoon (5 milliliters) of powdered zinc gluconate weighs 2.8 grams on my scale. Zinc gluconate is 13.14 % zinc. One level teaspoon of it contains 370 milligrams of elemental zinc. The molecular weight of zinc is 65. The formula for milliMolar concentration is milliMolar = milligrams of zinc divided by the molecular weight of the zinc divided by the volume of the solute (H2O). Therefore, 370 mg / 65.00 / 0.25 liters equals 22 milliMolar. What is 0.25 liter? It is essentially one half pint of H2O. Further, a level tablespoon of the powdered zinc gluconate weighs 9.0 grams. Therefore a tablespoon of zinc gluconate in a half pint of water would be a 72 milliMolar concentration of zinc. You can apply stronger concentrations equivalent to the strengths used in the clinical trials listed below. Get the belief?
Avoid applying these solutions to large areas such as the entire chest and/or back since vomiting may result from excessive ionic zinc absorption.
WARNING: Never lay pastes of zinc gluconate on herpes simplex infected tissues or tissue burning and painful ulcers will result.
Some mankind have had greatly increased redness and swelling from zinc gluconate paste applied to the penis, and they developed painful ulcers!
Some human beings have reported to me that they are simply applying dry zinc gluconate powder topically to wetted skin, which forms a white paste that sticks firmly. This may employment well on NON-SENSITIVE dry skin, however pastes that remain damp on sensitive genital tissues can increase the zinc ion content of the tissue to such an extent that severe tissue burning occurs. These tissue burns recover without scarring, and their occurrence do not mean that the herpes infection has worsened, however they are painful and distressing for a while. What I believe is happening is that ionic zinc in these super concentrated solutions in these virally infected tissues detaches virally infected cells from each other through intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) inhibition, thus destroying the weakened, virally infected tissue. This clearly causes major tissue damage, and is a much also severe effect to be called therapeutic, although it does give a graphic belief of the tissues indeed infected. One may speculate that this destruction of virally infected tissues would also completely eliminate all herpes simplex viruses in that tissue. On the other help, zinc gluconate is the least likely of the highly ionizable zinc compounds to cause tissue burning. For example, zinc acetate and zinc chloride are much stronger ionic chemicals, and they must never be used topically for fear of still greater, and much longer lasting tissue burning. Do not apply pastes! This also implies that drying solutions may increase irritation, and such is a strong cause to keep the bandages with zinc gluconate wet. Don't let it dry gone, OR keep the solutions weak, assert in the 20 to 100 milliMolar range. Keep it wet. If irritation increases, should you continue or stop? I would stop and thoroughly wash away the zinc gluconate. Any date the skin is broken, there is a possibility of another infection occurring, perhaps of a bacterial nature which may demand either preventative attention or therapy.
How about chicken pox and shingles? Will zinc employment with them? These are caused by the varicella zoster virus, a close cousin to the herpes simplex viruses. I have not found any medical literature on the subject, however I did have occasion to see if it would job. About 1990, a lady friend of mine came down with chicken pox, or shingles on her face. She was a painful mess. I told her about my research with zinc and she decided to try a mild solution of zinc gluconate on her face. She said it worked and the consequent date I saw her, diverse days later, her face was clear and she was very happy. There you have it, a single elect for YES! I know of no other instances where zinc has been used to treat chicken pox, although most rashes are treated with zinc oxide ointments for relief of itching. However, zinc oxide is not ionizable and does not damage the virus or skin. Again, very strong solutions and pastes will probably hurt or injure skin.
How about postherpetic neuralgia? This is a painful condition affecting nerve fibers and skin. It's a complication of shingles, a second outbreak of the varicella-zoster virus, which initially was caused chickenpox. During an initial infection of chickenpox (usually in childhood), some of the chickenpox virus remains dormant inside nerve cells. Years later, factors such as ancient age, illness, stress or medications can reactivate the virus. Once reactivated, the virus travels along nerve fibers, causing pain or "postherpetic neuralgia". I have an elderly neighbor who suffered noisily and loudly for about 6 months from facial pain from postherpetic neuralgia after a recurrence of chicken pox, shingles. Complaining of facial pain was her main occupation, and it occupied her age 24/7, driving her husband nearly nuts. Fussing at her doctors didn't job on account of they knew of nothing that would aid. To her doctors, postherpetic neuralgia was not curable. Fussing at her husband didn't assist, nevertheless fussing at me caused me to suggest zinc gluconate solutions like the ones used for herpes simplex and shingles. In total desperation she, in front of my eyes, applied the zinc gluconate solution to her painful face. She found it soothing and reapplied it quite frequently the first day and the consequent day. Less than a week later, she had a total recovery and no facial pain, however adamantly and loudly denied efficacy of the zinc gluconate solutions. She had no more pain! Who cares if it was just her age to get well spontaneously or if her pain-free face was due to zinc gluconate solutions? None of us attention, we are just glad she is not fussing any more.
Do not give zinc gluconate powder to anyone that has not glance at these precautions! They will likely hurt themselves!
Some process to prevent drying of strong solutions is needed. Perhaps, and I assert perhaps, one might be able to add a aqua soluble substance like glycerin (glycerol) or KY Jelly to aid prevent drying and tissue injury.
Some process of protecting the sterility of the solutions is needed. Perhaps using a bottle that has a drip or squirt opening so that the bottle is never really opened to the air would be helpful. Perhaps one could employ a baby bottle with a large hole in the nipple to aid keep the solution clean. Keep the bottle boldly marked with the words "WARNING: ZINC GLUCONATE - DO NOT INGEST" and keep it refrigerated between uses. Apply precautions and think of ways to avoid others from coming in contact with it. Keep it gone of reach of everyone, not just children.
If the truth be known, there are many chemicals that destroy or inactivate the herpes simplex virus. Iodine is a very common antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal agent for topical apply. A bit of a H2O soluble iodine complex like Povidine Iodine (Betadine iodine) might be added to the "zinc gluconate" wash to assist in the struggle against herpes. Tincture of iodine is also used, nevertheless it is in alcohol, which may sting tender tissues. Iodine stains the skin and clothing, and it is absorbed into the skin where it has its activity. An iodine-colored zinc gluconate wash might be helpful in reminding one to retreat. Iodine disappears into the skin at rates that are different between human beings. If it is absorbed in just a infrequent hours, such is said to represent an "iodine deficiency", while non-deficient human beings tend to absorb it in about 24 hours - so they affirm. Gaze up the medical research on iodine and herpes here. For example, in a very small 1975 study patients with vulvovaginal and cervical herpesvirus infections were treated with a regimen of external and intravaginal povidone-iodine preparations. In all nevertheless 1 condition, the expected duration of symptoms and healing date were shortened. The response of cervical lesions was exceptionally remarkable. How much iodine to add? I don't know, however if your body absorbs much more than 3 drops of iodine per day over a extended period of age (months), you may injure your thyroid. Also much iodine is dangerous and it can either cause hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, most mankind are deficient in iodine, which also causes hypothyroidism. In circumstance, iodine deficiency is a significant cause of cardiac death in dated mankind. You catch your chances! Google articles on "hypothyroidism" and "iodine".
A common hoemployhold chemical, sodium hypoclorite (Clorox bleach) is also extremely anti herpes simplex and is finding use in treating herpes. Hunter writes, "In a small series of patients, topical treatment with dilute sodium hypoclorite hastened the resolution of cutaneous and mucosal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus. Subjective discomfort was ameliorated and vesicles healed more rapidly. Sites treated during the prodrome stage failed to vesiculate. The advantages of this therapy included ease of treatment, patient acceptance, absence of side effects, and low cost." Hunter did not report what "diluted" meant, however I would guess a one percent to a ten percent solution of Clorox. Study this belief more here.
RED WINE! Red wine? Yes. A male recently told me that the only path he could prevent recurrence of genital herpes simplex infections was to drink a abundance of red wine. How much? Nearly enough to constitute him drunk - all the date! Is there support for red wine preventing herpes? Yes. A compound in red wine, called resveratrol, can stop the virus. The compound has previously been found to protect against heart disease. After carrying gone tests and developing a slightly modified form of the compound, called stil-5, they found that this stopped infection in 99.9% of cases. However, treatment is topical, and red wine or resveratrol or stil-5 is frequently applied. This gives a whole fresh meaning to the words, "Bottoms up!"
These nearly free of charge treatments for herpes tend to dampen major pharmaceutical corporation research investment in expensive antiherpes drugs.
Do these techniques really cure herpes simplex? I don't know! Why? Since I have never had a herpes infection and have never treated one either. I am not a physician, nevertheless a zinc researcher who thought this was interesting material needing to be made available to the public rather than be kept locked away somewhere in a dusty laboratory. Also, on account of no clinical trials to evaluation YOUR zinc gluconate solutions against herpes have been done, and on account of no one tells me the long-term results of THEIR private experimental efforts! At least, no users (except for the two men above using a paste) have complained to me. Since zinc for herpes is not patentable, and on account of we have no National policy to provide governmental support for non-patentable however potentially effective medical treatments, there never will be! On the other plam, if one does some literature research, there are more studies that indicate efficacy of zinc in treating herpes simplex and other herpes infections.
Are these treatment safe? Probably not. Why? Who knows what you will concoct!
Here is a letter from a guy that has absolute familiarity with zinc gluconate for herpes
I am one of the two men who contacted you re: burning caused by zinc gluconate pastes, and I am happy to see you have updated the website to reflect this cautionary sign to others. It did scar, nevertheless the scar essentially went away in about two months. Paste should always be highly, highly, highly discouraged however.
I also desire to assert THANK YOU SO MUCH for making this data about zinc and herpes public. I have had excellent results from apply of zinc gluconate, although it is not a cure for me, at least so far. It is, however, an amazing reducer of both the potency and recurrence of the virus.
For your continued research and to aid others, I thought I should report my results to you.
After I let the area heal (from apply of the paste), I resumed further treatment. I began using zinc gluconate powder, this age as a 100 millimolar solution, in January of this year. At the age I was having continuous outbreaks that were severe.
My methodology was to mix 1 tsp (1 U.S. teaspoon = 4.93 milliliters) of zinc gluconate. with 50 mL of hot tap H2O, stir until it dissolved (which makes a strong 100 millimolar concentration), and keep the measuring cup warm in a hot aqua bath in the sink. I then just applied the warm acqueous solution to the affected area with a wet Kleenex, and aged the exposure to 15 minutes. Then I left the area wet and let it air dry (which extends the exposure time another hardly any minutes). This creates minor pain during an outbreak if the legions are broken first, nevertheless still that goes away in a infrequent minutes. Later, after the area begins to heal, it is indeed ineffective, and in event counter-productive, so I learned to not apply it to the affected area after scabs form. Concerning frequency of apply: In common I used it once per day for about three months, except during outbreaks, and then I used it twice a day. Duration (time I kept it wet) was always about 15 minutes, leaving it wet at the end.
The results have been a decrease in outbreaks from constant and severe to only about once in 4-5 months (amazing), and duration has been reduced from weeks to 3-4 days (maximum has probably been 8 or 9 days, if I munch chocolate and eat other sweet junk during the outbreak, which I try to avoid). These results are against a backdrop of a much more stressful job than most mankind have (very lenghty hours, as I run a large company), a abundance less sleep than I should get, and eating poorly during the whole 9 month period. So I would affirm this methodology is a big success and a helluva abundance higher quality than popping pills every day. It has changed my lifetime, I can confident tell you that. I owe you big date.
It is very valuable to mention that those studies are fair. It is essential to begin treatment during the "rising red phase ", and then continue treatment (if blisters appear) for the first two days the blisters are present. The blisters should be broken (with a soapy wet washcloth), and then the zinc solution applied directly. This will sting for approximately 10 minutes after application is complete. After two days, when scabbing occurs, the employ of the zinc solution in the affected area needs to be discontinued, to avoid irritation. The studies are correct in this regard, also in my familiarity, it is ineffective to apply the solution during the healing phase --does nothing however irritate.
As I said before, duration of outbreaks dropped for me from 2 weeks to 1 week to 3-5 days. Also, the blisters go from big to small to tiny across the succesive outbreaks. Eventually, I needed a magnifying glass just to see them! So, treatment has to be adjusted somewhat to avoid irritating the area as healing is much faster over date.
A infrequent questions, as I still employ the zinc and desire to continue to experiment to further reduce or eliminate the virus entirely if potential:
Interrogation 1: I am thinking of venturing into zinc sulfate, just since most of the research you cite is with sulfate instead of gluconate. I understand I will demand to be careful with it to avoid burning, nevertheless a solution at a low molarity, I think that might be avoidable. Is zinc sulfate chemically different from zinc gluconate in a path that herpes might respond to it differently? The research appeared to be still more successful using the sulfate instead....
Answer: There would be no difference in response between zinc gluconate and zinc sulfate, on account of both are nearly the same in their ability to release zinc ions at physiologic pH 7.4 Zinc sulfate is available from many pharmaceutical supply and chemical companies. However, zinc gluconate is much more readily available in the high quality (food and pharmaceutical grades) that we call for. Zinc sulfate tends to be used more in industry and agriculture, as you have found.
Interrogation 2: Of all the research you cite, the most compelling (and in circumstance the most compelling study I have ever peruse about herpes) is the one about "herpigon" which cured everybody in the study, nevertheless yields ziltch when searched on google. I wonder if the Pharma folks took it off the market. My theory, is that what made it so amazingly effective was the apply of ultrasound, to push it a small deeper into the skin's surface.
Answer: I assent with you. The researcher died before it could be commercialized. Also, he told me that no pharmaceutical corporation wanted to commercialize it. Frankly, I can't think of a single "cure" for any disease after the cure for polio, which taught the pharmaceutical corporation that life-long treatments were vastly more profitable than cures.
It would create for a great experiment if I could figure outside how to try it.
Anyway, thanks again for everything...
Your pal, Dave.
All (over 176) medical journal articles available on PubMed (the National Library of Medicine)
See this Scholar.Google search for "herpes" and "zinc".
See this legend about evidence for a mononucleosis cure (Epstein Barr, a herpes family virus) using zinc acetate lozenges.
Here is a link to a 1995 German article on apply of zinc sulfate gel to treat oral herpes.
Here is a year 2000 link to a medical article about zinc ion antiherpes effects in vitro.
Here is a 2003 article that shows doctors in Iran can prevent oral herpes simplex recurrence with 0.05% zinc sulfate.
Here is a link to a review article about oral and genital herpes (more data than I can employ - zinc not mentioned). Genital Herpes: Review of the Epidemic and Potential Apply of Type-Specific Serology
Here is a link to a Scholar.Google.com search for "herpes simplex"
Following is the complete paragraph of my 1984 Medical Hypotheses (volume 17, pages 157 - 165) article.
Apply of Topical Zinc to Prevent Recurrent Herpes Simples Infection: Review of Literature and Suggested Protocols, Medical Hypotheses 1985, (volume 17, pages 157 - 165)
George A. Eby, P.O. Box 1142, Dripping Springs, TX 78620 USA, and William W. Halcomb D.O., Mesa, Arizona, USA
Zinc ions have been reported to be antiviral to herpes simplex viruses. A number of treatments using zinc are reviewed which illustrate the effects of topically applied zinc in reducing the duration and severity of huadult orolabial and genital infections. Long-term topical application of zinc salts appears to greatly reduce or eliminate recurrences of genital herpetic infections.
Highly contagious and painful, mucous membrane and skin lesions caused by herpes simplex viruses are among the most common and oldest infections kinstantlyn to man. Two types affect humans: one which usually causes orolabial, nasal and upper-body skin lesions (type 1) and a second type which usually causes genital lesions (type 2). Recurrence is a common characteristic of these infections. Herpetic infections are believed to be incurable, thus leaving victims with a sense of helplessness at each recurrence. Recurrent herpes simplex infections of the lips are experienced by about half of the population and recurrent herpetic infections are now the most common form of venereal disease (1). Infections seem to be brought on by trauma, fever, menses, infection, sunlight, emotional stress or weakened immune response. Infants born through the birth-canal of women with active genital herpes infection have a 50% chance of developing neonatal herpes which is 80% fatal (1). Herpes simplex viruses are associated with 40 to 70% of cervical cancers in humans and can cause malignant transformation in both animal and human cells. Women who have had genital herpes face an increased risk of developing cervical and vulvar cancer years later (1).
No antiviral agent, including acyclovir, has been accepted as effective against recurrent herpes simplex symptoms (1), and most that are available have toxicity or side effects. Consequently a safe and effective method to eliminate or substantially reduce recurrence should be of considerable importance. Our interest in effects of zinc gluconate throat lozenges in reducing the duration of common colds (2) led to a review of effects of zinc on herpes simplex viruses that cause nasal infections (common colds), as well as orolabial, skin and genital infections in humans. This article reviews the evidence that zinc has antiviral effects against herpes simplex viruses and that it might be useful as definitive therapy to prevent recurrence of both primary and secondary infections.
ANTIHERPETIC EFFECTS OF ZINC
As early as 1948, aqueous zinc sulfate solutions were used empirically as treatment for herpetic keratitis. A 0.5% zinc sulfate solution applied to debrided corneas resulted in a 90% cure rate while the remaining 10% responded to a second treatment (3). Application of zinc ointment or calamine lotion to herpes simplex infections has lenghty been used to relieve pain and swelling (4).
In Vitro Studies
In 1967, D. Falke observed that zinc chloride added to herpes simplex virus-infected tissue culture cells completely blocked formation of herpes induced giant cells (5). Another early study demonstrated that divalent cations, particularly zinc, appeared to crosslink the double helix of DNA to increase the structural stability of the molecule (6). Since herpes simplex viruses contain linear doublestranded DNA, zinc crosslinked DNA might not undergo the scission necessary for viral replication (7). Between 1975 and 1980, in vitro studies showed that 0.lmM zinc ions completely inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (8,9,10,11) and completely inhibits herpes simplex DNA synthesis at 0.1mM concentration, with no harm to parent cells (11). Host cell chromosome uncoiling is prevented at 0.2mM concentration (12,13). For comparison, normal zinc serum concentration is 0.01 millimolar.
Intravaginally applied zinc sulfate (100mM) in collagen sponge tampons controlled experimentally induced genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in mice. Incidence of vaginitis, encephalitis and mortality by day 15 was zero in treated animals compared to 30%, 40% and 40% respectively in control animals (P < 0.04). Treatment resulted in a 67-fold increase in zinc concentration in the vagina, 16-fold increase in the cervix, 1.5-fold increase in the uterus, and no alter in serum. Vaginal douches (100mM) were equally effective, although occlusive creams were ineffective (14,15). In guinea pigs healing age was significantly reduced for herpes simplex virus type 2 lesions by Herpigon (3% zinc sulfate, 2% tannic acid, 30% urea in a cream base) and ultrasound. Treatment also greatly reduced the amount of recoverable virus (16). In rabbits with zinc deficiency-induced depression of humoral and cellular immunity, topical zinc ointment failed to control herpes simplex keratitis (17). Intraperitoneal injection of zinc in mice (sufficient to double zinc serum concentration) worsened genital herpes simplex infections, perhaps on account of such administration resulted in an 82% reduction of peritoneal inflammatory cells (P < 0.001) with negligible increase in reproductive tissue zinc concentration (15).
In an effort to employ the antiviral properties of zinc to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex infections and post-herpetic erythema multiforme, I. Brody used 0.010 - 0.025% zinc sulfate solutions for oral mucous membranes and 0.025 - 0.050% solutions for the skin in 30 patients. Lukewarm solutions were applied to upper-body skin lesions with a gauze compress for aboutside 10 minutes once a day until the lesions disappeared. Oral mucous membranes were treated with a mouth rinse for 1 to 3 minutes daily until lesions disappeared. Maintenance treatment was similarly given first once a week for a month and thereafter twice a month. Maintenance treatment of herpes simplex and post-herpetic erythema multiforme prevented recurrence entirely during the 2-year observation period in each patient. The low concentrations prevented the irritation, pain, unpleasant dryness and emetic reflex associated with stronger concentrations (18).
Topical application of a 4% zinc sulfate aqueous solution was used by A. Wahba to treat 18 subjects having had visible evidence of recurrent herpes for 48 hours or less. Fourteen had orolabial herpes, and 4 had genital herpes infections. The vesicles were ruptured and unroofed with a sterile needle. Zinc was applied with a wet dressing for a period of at least one hour, four times daily for 4 days. In all patients, pain, tingling and burning abated and stopped completely within the first 24 hours of therapy. Crusting occurred within 2 days as opposed to 7 days with other treatments in 16 out of the 18 subjects. Age for complete healing was 9.5 days compared to 16 days with other treatments. Two subjects had fresh vesicles appearing in adjacent areas within 3 days after therapy started which successfully responded to retreatment. No adverse reactions to therapy were reported (19). Topical 2% zinc acetate therapy of type 2 herpes in the vesicular border of pyoderma gangrenosum lesions on the genital region of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia produced dramatic relief of pain as well as quick disappearance of the vesicular margin of the lesions and of the inflammatory halo enclosing them (20).
Collagen sponge tampons impregnated with 40 mg zinc sulfate were tested by M. Chvapil and W. Droegemueller in 10 young women with primary herpes simplex genitalis. Most had symptoms for 7 to 9 days before treatment was initiated. Tampons were replaced daily. Also, 2mM zinc glycine was used diverse times daily as an external spray. Treatment was continued for two to three weeks. Three patients had mild recurrence of infection within 6 months as compared to an expected 80% recurrence rate. It was suggested that delivery of a high concentration of a virucidal agent at the site of infection may prevent retrograde spread of the virus to the paracervical plexus and to the presacral ganglia. There was neither evidence of a rise in zinc serum levels, nor vaginal or systemic toxicity among the patients (21,22). The best application for topical zinc was suggested to be in patients having definite prodromes, so that they could commence preventive treatment one or two days prior to the expected eruption of vesicles.
Diverse larger studies by M.S. Fahim with both men and women addressed the effectiveness of Herpigon applied with ultrasound. Neither the ointment nor the ultrasound were effective alone; nevertheless together, they significantly shortened healing age and reduced recurrences. A controlled study of 23 male patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 blisters on their genitals was conducted with 13 receiving treatment and 10 receiving placebo treatment. Ointment with ultrasound was applied directly to the blisters. A 1% zinc sulfate rinse (zinc sulfate in a glycerol and H2O solution) was used weekly by the treated subjects for 3 month and thereafter once each two weeks and after intercourse. Viral cultures from zinc-treated patients showed a significant drop in viral titer after the first treatment, and titers later fell to below detectable levels. The rising red stage and earlier were described as the best times to treat. All however one of the treated patients had no recurrent infection during the 2-year observation period. The patient with a recurrence responded favorably to additional treatment and had no further recurrence within the 12-month observation period. All controls experienced recurrence within 80 days. These results indicate that genital hygiene with a zinc-containing soap is a critical factor in reducing recurrent infection. No skin irritation or other side effects were reported. A comparison of the malignant transformation frequencies of samples obtained from both guinea pigs and humans before and after treatment showed significantly less transformation in treated samples (23,24). Treatment in 116 women with Herpigon and ultrasound followed with a twice daily douche with 0.5% zinc sulfate for one week reduced itching to 0.6 days compared with 5.2 days in 21 controls and reduced the healing period to 5.8 days compared with 14.6 days in controls (P < 0.0001). During the following 2-year observation period, only 14% had recurrences, while all of the placebo-treated subjects had recurrences within 109 days. Treatment was most effective when started during the rising red stage or earlier and was ineffective if started during the healing stage. No side effects or toxicity was noted in any of the treated patients (25).
A lanolin-based ointment containing 8% lithium succinate and 0.05% zinc sulfate was tested by G.R.B. Skinner in 73 patients in a double-blind study. The ointment was applied 4 times a day for seven days with the endure application immediately before beddate. Treatment reduced the median duration of pain and discomfort from 7 to 4 days (P < 0.05); while time for entire healing was 8 days in the placebo collection and 7 days in the treated collection. Eleven gone of 20 (55%) placebo-treated patients were excreting virus by the fourth or fifth day, compared with 5 of 37 (14%) treated patients (p < 0.0l). In those patients who were still excreting virus on the fourth or fifth day, mean virus excretion in the 5 treated patients was only one-thirtieth of that in the 11 placebo-treated subjects (P < 0.0l). No community or systemic side effects were noted (26).
Orally administered zinc has been suggested in letters to reduce the severity of infection and incidence of recurrent genital and orolabial herpes (27,28,29). However, a preliminary double-blind study of 30 subjects by R. Jones indicated that oral zinc was nearly indistinguishable from a placebo. Subjects were treated daily with Zinvit-C250 tablets (zinc sulfate, 220 mg; magnesium sulfate, 50 mg; vitamin B1, 5 mg; vitamin B2, 5 mg) or placebo (Zinvit-C250 without zinc). Zinc-treated subjects had only a 15% greater reduction in duration of symptoms during a 4-month trial than did placebo-treated subjects (personal communication, 1984). Still so, zinc supplementation might be beneficial to herpes victims with zinc deficiency. Such deficiency impairs primary (T-cell) immune system function which supplemental zinc has been shown to correct (30). Additionally, oral zinc administration might be beneficial in healing herpetic stomach ulcers.
Zinc compounds applied topically in aqueous solution may become the treatment of choice for herpes simplex infections, by virtue of zinc's antiviral activity to herpes viruses, its effect in preventing recurrence, its requirement by the immune system and its lack of toxicity. Topically applied zinc compounds seem to significantly reduce pain and itching, reduce the duration of infection, accelerate healing and reduce or eliminate recurrence when used in long-term treatments. In each study, topical application of zinc in aqueous solution was shown effective, while occlusive ointments were effective only when applied with ultrasound or lithium succinate. Occlusive ointments with other antiviral agents have also been reported to be ineffective in treating herpetic infection (1).
Herpes simplex infections are often severe or lifetime threatening in immunocompromised patients, persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), persons with pre-existing active dermatitis and new-born infants. It may be imaginable to reduce or eliminate mortality and severe sequela with topical zinc in such subjects. Oral administration of sufficient zinc gluconate to raise zinc serum levels ten-fold to antiherpetic concentrations is imaginable (31) and in some life-threatening cases such oral or intravenous administration might be warranted in order to stop viral replication. Zinc also inhibits equine herpes viruses type 1 and 3 polymerases (32) suggesting that beneficial effects may also occur in other species. It needs to become more widely recognized that there is evidence that zinc ion greatly reduces or eliminates recurrent herpes simplex infections. Zinc, topically applied on a long-term basis appears to be effective. It may be that zinc used in this path acts as a "one-way gate" and prevents ganglionic reinfections responsible for recurrences, thus curing herpes. Various methods of applying topical zinc appear to be reasonable approaches to treating herpetic infections in routine clinical apply.
CAVEATS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This review, although believed to be an accurate reflection of the essential findings of a number of researchers, is uncritical. Some of the in vitro studies are found only in obscure, foreign literature. The cited human studies are not contemporary studies and are not well-blinded, for the most part. Neither do they seem to be highly controlled nor do they have sufficiently large cohorts. We find no evidence to suggest that any are inaccurate, however they still remain suspect as not one study has been independently replicated using very corresponding protocols. Since each study was quite different from the others, and corresponding results were reported, it may be that the method is insensitive and that any method of applying zinc solutions to herpetic infections is helpful and may be curative if used for lenghty periods of date. However, much job is necessary to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that topical zinc can prstillt recurrence.
Topical application of zinc sulfate solutions can cause painful or irritating side effects if not used in very low concentrations. High concentrations can cause extreme pain. The gentlest form of zinc, zinc oxide, is insufficiently ionizable, not absorbed into cells, and ineffective.
The present authors have not tested any of the methods described herein for long-term effectiveness against recurrence, nor are we suitably equipped to do so. However, we know that zinc gluconate lozenges as used to treat common colds (2) cause no oral pain even when concentrations are as well high to dissolve. Such treatment should be equally effective and painless as treatment for oral or nasal herpes simplex infections. To ascertain if zinc gluconate produced pain in genital herpes, we tested warm zinc gluconate aqueous solutions (235mM) on genital herpetic lesions in four female subjects. The subjects reported that such solutions caapplyd no pain, accelerated recovery, and were well appreciated. These findings suggest an alternative to the potentially painful zinc sulfate treatments. Therefore, we are interested in and biased towards use of zinc gluconate instead of zinc sulfate in the treatment of all forms of herpetic infection. However, zinc gluconate in aqueous solutions can be biodegraded by micro-organisms turning solutions cloudy. In order to stabilize solutions preservatives such as methylparabens or refrigeration are used. To prepare saturated solutions, we used granular zinc gluconate manufactured by Akzo Chemie, Stationsstraat 48, P.O. Box 975, 3800 AZ Amersfoort, The Netherlands.
In order to provide suitable evidence to verify the ability of zinc ions to prevent recurrence, numerous replications of average protocols are needed. We suggest the following experimental protocols be used in double-blind, placebo-controlled, long-term, clinical studies. Treatment should begin as soon as potential after the infection is diagnosed. The subjects should be observed for a minimum of two years to ascertain the effect of treatment on recurrence. When recurrence is observed, retreat.
Protocol number 1 -- ocular infections
Treat infected eye with two or three drops of zinc gluconate aqueous solutions (16mM) four times daily for one week and then once daily for six weeks.
Protocol number 2 -- oral and/or nasal infections
Dissolve in mouth tablets containing 25 milligrams of elemental zinc as zinc gluconate six times daily for one week, followed by two treatments/day for the following six weeks. Zinc call for not be swallowed.
Protocol number 3 -- facial and upper-body skin infections
Treat accepted area subject to infection with zinc gluconate aqueous solutions (100 to 200mM) using warm rinses and/or wet dressings. Maintain treatment for 15 minutes or longer twice daily for the first week then once daily for the following six weeks.
Protocol number 4 -- male genital infections
Treat the common area subject to infection with zinc gluconate aqueous solutions (100 to 200mM) using warm rinses and/or wet dressings. Maintain treatment for 15 minutes or longer twice daily for the first two weeks then once daily for the following 12 weeks.
Protocol number 5 -- female genital infections
Treat the accepted area subject to infection with zinc gluconate aqueous solutions (100 to 200mM) twice daily for the first two weeks and then once daily for the following 12 weeks. Apply warm rinses, douches, wet vaginal sponges, sanitary napkins or other dressings as applicable. Maintain each dressing for 15 minutes or longer.
A desirable feature of each of the suggested protocols is that such treatments are sufficiently simple that they can be self-administered, thus clinic visits can be reduced to a reasonable level. Thus, if proven safe, painless and effective, these protocols could become the basis of inexpensive over-the-counter treatments to prevent the recurrence of herpes simplex infections.
What is genital herpes?
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). A sexually transmitted disease is a disease that you get by having sex with someone who already has the disease. Herpes is a viral infection caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Once you are infected, the virus stays in your body for lifetime. You can give herpes to another person if you have sex when your herpes virus is active. HSV remains in certain nerve cells of the body forever, and can produce symptoms off and on in some infected mankind.
Herpes is spread through administer contact. So, a genital herpes infection will stay in the area it originated unless transferred elsewhere via open contact or skin-to-skin transference. Herpes won't just indicate up on its own somewhere else on the body. Since herpes is spread through administer contact, it is valuable to avoid contact with infected areas. If a herpes infection is not localized, further complications may occur. For instance, a Herpes infection in the eyes can lead to severe complications, including blindness.
Herpes is equally common in males and females.
Types of Herpes?
There are two types of Herpes Simplex Virus. Both types can cause genital herpes and oral herpes. HSV type 1 usually infects the lips. When the lips are infected sores called fever blisters or cold sores are present. However, HSV type 1 can infect the genital area and produce sores there. Research has shown that between 50 to 80% of all Americans carry the antibodies to HSV-1.
Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 is the usual cause of genital herpes. However, it also can infect the mouth during oral sex. A person who has genital herpes can pass or transmit the virus to an uninfected person during sex.
Both HSV 1 and 2 can produce sores (also called lesions) in and encircling the vaginal area, on the penis, enclosing the anal opening, and on the buttocks or thighs. Sometimes, sores also appear on other parts of the body where the virus has entered through broken skin. HSV remains in certain nerve cells of the body for lifetime, and can produce symptoms off and on in some infected human beings.
Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and type 2 gaze identical under the microscope, and either type can infect the mouth or genitals. However, HSV-1 occurs above the waist, and HSV-2 below.
How does someone get genital herpes?
Most human beings get genital herpes by having sex or administer skin to skin contact with someone who is has cold sores or blisters present. When the sores are present, it method that HSV is active. Sometimes a person can have an outbreak and have no visible sores at all. Mankind usually get genital herpes by having sexual contact with others who don’t know they are infected or who are having outbreaks of herpes without any sores. A person with genital herpes also can infect a sexual partner during oral sex. The virus is usually not spread by touching objects such as a toilet seat or hot tub.
Herpes is not spread through the air. It is spread by open contact to the site of infection. If you have a cold sore and you kiss someone, you will transfer the virus to their mouth. If you have a cold sore and you have anal or vaginal intercourse, you will give yor partner genital herpes.
What are the symptoms?
Most mankind who have genital herpes don’t know it since they never have any symptoms, or they do not recognize any symptoms they might have. When symptoms are present, they can be different in each person. Usually when a person becomes infected with herpes for the first age, the symptoms will appear within two to 10 days. The first episode of symptoms usually endure two to three weeks.
Symptoms of a genital herpes outbreak comprehend: itching or burning feeling in the genital or anal area. pain in the legs, buttocks, or genital area. discharge of fluid from the vagina, feeling of pressure in the abdomen, fever, headache, muscle aches, painful or difficult urination, vaginal discharge, and swollen glands in the groin area.
What does Herpes observe like?
Oral herpes looks like this. (picture courtesy of lapell.it)
Herpes can be spread between outbreaks when there are no signs or symptoms present. This is called "Asymptomatic Transmission." Research shows that herpes simplex infections are often spread by mankind who don't know they are infected. This occurs on account of human beings may have symptoms so mild that they don't notice them at all or else don't recognize them as herpes.
Will I ever have outbreaks again?
If you are infected by HSV 1 and/or 2, you will probably have symptoms or outbreaks again. The herpes virus never dies. It merely falls asleep (dormant) like "Sleeping Beauty", Waiting to wake up under the correctly stimulation. When the virus is no longer active, it travels to the nerves at the end of the spine and stays there for a while. In some human beings, the virus can become active diverse times a year. This is called a recurrence. When the virus becomes active again, it travels along the nerves to the skin and makes more viruses near the site of the very first infection. The site of the virus is where where fresh sores usually will appear. Outbreaks are not predictable.
If you training an outbreak, avoid touching the sores. If you get the get the virus on your hands and may transmit it to other parts of your body. Oral herpes is easily transmitted through skin-to-skin contact so if you are experiencing an outbreak, avoid kissing others and sharing utensils.
How does the doctor diagnose genital herpes?
Either by visual inspection and a blood evaluation.
Can Genital Herpes be Treated?
Currently there is no cure for genital herpes. However, your doctor might prescribe medicine to treat the symptoms.
Can genital herpes cause any other medical problems?
Usually, genital herpes does not cause major problems in healthy adults. If a woman has her first episode of genital herpes while she is pregnant, she can pass the virus to her unborn infant and may deliver a premature baby. A baby born with herpes can develop problems that may affect the brain, the skin, or the eyes.
How can I protect myself or my sexual partner?
You can Assist protect your partner from getting genital herpes by using a condom during and between outbreaks (especially since you may not know if you are having an outbreak).
***An estimated 35,000,000 to 40,000,000 mankind in the United States, from ages 15 to 75, may have been infected with genital herpes. Up to 500,000 advanced cases are reported each year.
Diagnosing Genital Herpes
Mankind who are experiencing a herpes outbreak may be able to receive a diagnosis from their doctor simply through a visual examination of the herpes bumps or lesions. However, herpes sores tend to resemble syphilis lesions making a visual diagnosis less reliable. Furthermore, herpes sores may not be present or visible (as in the example of vaginal herpes) which is why an actual herpes evaluation is often a more accurate path of identifying a herpes infection.
This check can only be done when a person is having a herpes outbreak. For the evaluation, a tissue sample is scraped off the surface of the lesion. It is then stained and examined under a microscope to see if any cells contain multiple nuclei. If the cells do contain an abundant amount of nuclei, then a herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is likely. However, this check tends to be between 50% and 70% accurate and it cannot distinguish between HSV-1 and HSV-2 or much HSV and herpes zoster (the strain associated with shingles). Results of the check can be produced fairly quickly, though.
This type of diagnostic evaluation can be as much as 100% accurate so extended as the check is done while your herpes sores are still in the clear blister stage and haven’t scabbed over. To check the lesion, a fluid sample is taken from the sore. For the best results, the sample should be taken within three days of the blisters appearance. The sample is then left to culture and analyzed for the presence of the herpes virus. Results of this check can capture from 24 hours to a hardly any days.
A blood evaluation can be performed regardless of whether or not there are any herpes sores present. For this evaluation, a sample of your blood is taken and analyzed for HSV antibodies. While the evaluation is 85% accurate in determining a herpes infection, it is 100% accurate at identifying whether you are infected with herpes simplex virus 1 or herpes simplex virus 2. While a blood check used to have to be sent to a lab for analysis, a fresh type of blood check has been developed and approved by the FDA, which your doctor can perform in her office. Called the POCkit (Point of Attention kit), this herpes check can provide an accurate result in 10 minutes.
Herpes medication generally consist of three types of drugs: acyclovir (Zovirax), valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir). All three employment to hasten the healing of herpes sores and can also employment to suppress an outbreak. However, they cannot prevent herpes transmission nor are they a herpes cure. Currently, there is no cure for herpes.
Depending on the location of the outbreak, this herpes prescription drug can be administered either through pills, injections or topical creams. The topical treatment tends to be the least effective of the three while the injections can cause blood clots at the site of injection as well as increase your risk of kidney problems. Oral medications are a common genital herpes treatment. However, repeat doses are usually required and these herpes pills can comprehend some unpleasant side effects, such as nausea/vomiting, headaches, exhaustion, rash, tremors and, rarely, seizures.
Once this drug reaches the liver and intestines, it is converted into acyclovir. As a result, your body receives a higher concentration of the drug nevertheless without increasing the toxicity level. This process fewer doses are required. However, those mankind who have a compromised immune system will have a higher risk of developing blood clots with the apply of this drug.
This herpes treatment is not as effective at combating the symptoms of HSV-2 compared to acyclovir. Once this drug comes into contact with an enzyme produced by the herpes virus, it is converted into penciclovir. Penciclovir is typically used as an ointment to treat areas of skin affected by herpes.
If your body is resistant to the usual medication in herpes prescriptions, or if some other health issue prevents you from taking these medications, another drug may be prescribed.
Potential Outlook Treatments
Researchers are testing various drugs that employment to enhance your immune system thereby helping to prevent herpes outbreaks. Additionally, a herpes vaccine has been in the works for a number of years instantly and many scientists are hoping to see an effective vaccine on the market within the consequent five years. While universal immunization would assist to drastically reduce the number of human beings infected with herpes, it would do small to assist those already infected